Bonding  Notes 4/2007
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Palomar 2460-V
Palomar 2470-V
Palomar 3500
2460-V PARTS
2470-V PARTS
3500  PARTS
Legacy parts
Bonding Notes 7/2006
Bonding  Notes 4/2007
Bonding Notes 8/2008
Bonding Notes 7/2012

April 2007

Wire Bonding Tools & Questions

Q: Why are Palomar Technologies and other companies going to higher frequencies for ultrasonic generators?

A: The choice of 60 kHz was made several decades ago based on appropriate transducer dimensions for the product sizes of the era and stability during the bonding load. Higher frequency transducers usually reduce the time and force required for a similar bond. With the advent of ultra high speed wire bonders with more than eight wires per second the reduction in bonding time (dwell) becomes extremely important. For example: With a 60 Khz ultrasonic generator at 125 degrees C the time for the 1st bond may be 20 ms with 40 grams of applied force and 30 ms for the 2nd bond with an applied force of 120 grams. With a 120 kHz ultrasonic generator, the bond time for the1st and 2nd bond can be reduced to 10 ms with an applied force of 20 grams and 90 grams, respectively. Both samples will exhibit similar shear strength. Itís easy to see that a significant gain in bonding speed is possible. The reduced time and force required to achieve an excellent metallurgical bond is attributed to the increased mechanical scrub between the wire and pad interface. Some changes in the plastic deformation behavior of the ball and bond pad material have been noted and need to be studied more closely.

A higher frequency 128 Khz ultrasonic transducer and generator combination is available with Palomar 2460-V bonders. It also resonates in a circular pattern rather than the piston-like action of the 60 Khz unit. This circular pattern eliminates the need for ultrasonic compensation which must be used in most circumstances to compensate for the over bonding in the Y axis. The over bonding occurs because of the physics inherent with the front to rear piston-like action of the 60 Khz transducer. Speed is not the issue since 3 wires-per-second is about standard with a 2460-V, depending on pad pitch and wire length. Iíve heard the 128 Khz combination offered is not extremely reliable.

Even with ultra high-speed wire bonders, the dwell times probably cannot be reduced much below indicated values. This should limit bonding speed to 10 or 12 wires per second.

Q: You mentioned black deposits on EFO wands. Ours have holes in them.

A: Yes, NEFOs (negative electronic flame-off generators) can cause actual holes in the copper wand. Seems the negative flow of electrons actually rips off copper atoms. Iíve never seen any studies indicating where those randomly ripped off electrons go. I suspect some of them end up on the gold ball since that is the way they should flow in the plasma. It would be interesting to see if they cause any kind of contamination. Although there are probably very few atoms of copper involved during each flame-off cycle. Sure does make repairing the damage to the EFO wand difficult. Lightly sanding or removing the damage with solvents is not possible as it is with the positive EFO.

Q: We have an extremely difficult time formatting floppy disks with our 2460-V. Is software version 1, revision 16 prone to this problem?

A: From what Iíve seen, yes. The last four machines with which I worked had version 1, revision 16 and formatting disks was difficult with most brands. I have had good success with Sony IBM DSHD preformatted disks. It may be necessary to make more than one attempt to format the disk.

Q: Occasionally we need to make rather small balls with our negative EFO. Most of the time we get flame-off errors even though the bond is completed successfully and a ball is formed for the next bond. How can we correct this problem?

A: If the bond is completed successfully and a flame-off error is displayed, a high voltage detection failure has occurred. This error is generated when the current flow is not high enough to indicate to the detection circuit that a ball was formed. The detector sees this as an open condition indicating either no tail or too short a tail was present. Increasing the arc length slightly should help as long as the arc length does not exceed the gap the voltage can ionize. The larger gap slightly increases the amount of current flowing to form the ball because more air must be ionized to form the plasma that melts the gold wire tail. Alternately, increasing the EFO time and the tail length should also help as long as the ball is not melted back into the inside chamfer of the capillary and the ball does not exceed the size constraints. If this fails, try setting the switch below the meter on the NEFO to the right or high position and turn the right pot a small amount clockwise. A jewelerís screwdriver allows you to see the movement better than a plastic tweaker. The idea is to move the red indicator bar slightly to the right to open up the window a small amount. Do not confuse this switch with the high and low switch that adjusts the current for large and small wire; it moves up and down and should always be set to low unless you are using wire larger than 1.5 mils. This is a quick and dirty way to adjust the NEFO for smaller balls. It is always best to remember where the pot was when you started the adjustment so if the adjustment does not have the desired effect, it can be turned back to itís original position. Be sure to return this switch to the low position because, for some strange reason no one has been able to explain to me, it works best there. I hope this helps. For a more comprehensive adjustment procedure, please refer to the manual.

Q: We were just doing the EFO adjustments and I remembered the old EFO time pot on the I/O board. I checked the manual for EFO time and could not find any adjustment procedure. Has the EFO time setting been eliminated in the 2460-V because of the negative EFO?

A: I had forgotten about the EFO time adjustment myself so I checked the latest update for the 2460-V manual and there isnít anything about EFO time pot adjustment. The adjustment was always extremely simple. The correct timing is 2 milliseconds when the EFO time with the positive EFO was set at 200. Since the time never reached 2 milliseconds no matter where you adjusted the pot, the adjustment was usually fully clockwise. I donít see any reason why the timing adjustment would be any different with the negative EFO. Why Palomar omitted the adjustment is anyoneís guess. Set the pot fully clockwise and everything should be fine.

Q: We attempted to enter the part name while generating a program with our 2460-V. Nothing happens when following the manual. What gives?

A: Ok, Iíll admit it, I fell for that one also. Remember how easy it was with the 2460-I/II machines when you followed the manual? "Press the numbered key for the desired part name". I actually found myself doing it. I pressed Ď1í and expected to see the ĎUí for integrated circuit appear in the highlighted blank space. Ok, I belabor the point. Just press the Ďnoí key and select the name you desire by pressing the Ďenterí key. Easy isnít it?

Q: Some of the assembly part numbers are difficult or impossible to read. Any help with a parts list?

A: Iíve included a partial parts list on my web page: Just click on the button labeled Palomar Parts or Hughes Parts. I constantly add new and used parts. I think you will find my replacement parts prices extremely competitive. Please feel free to contact me by phone or fax for difficult to find or unlisted parts.

Palomar Technologies 2460-V Automatic Thermosonic Gold Ball Wire Bonder


Cycle time: 250 ms per wire with a wire length of 0.025 inches

CPU: 200 MHz or greater

Drives: 500 Mb or larger hard disk drive and a 3.5 inch floppy disk drive

Pattern recognition: Cognex 5000 series gray-scale vision system

Programmable lighting dual channel (through-the-lens and off-axis)

Bond force: 20 to 200 grams (programmable in one gram increments)

Ultrasonic generator: 1 or 5 watt (selectable), 60 kHz, phaselock controlled, dual mode

Ultrasonic transducer: electrostrictive ceramic 60 kHz

Flame-off: Negative electronic arc with adjustable miss detection

Standard gold wire: round wire diameter 0.0007 to 0.002 inches with negative EFO

Optional gold wire: round wire diameter 0.002 to 0.003 inches with positive EFO

Z stroke: 0.500 inches, 1.0 inches deep access optional

X-Y positioner range 12 x 5 inches

4 x 4 inch heated work stage, 4 x 6 inch heated work stage optional, 250 degrees C. maximum

Axis (X, Y, Z) resolution: 0.0001 inches

Digital servo: Pre-tuned at factory no tuning needed

Looping: multiple programmable looping modes with maximum loop height

True multi-axis, coordinated motion control

Operation and maintenance manual included


3500-II Die Placement Cell 4 Position Punch Up System (not complete 3500-II) With Power Supply



All equipment completely refurbished and adjusted to factory specifications

Hughes/Palomar Model 2460-IIs, and Model 2460-IVs Available




WD-13143 Bond head 2460-IV/V 1 inch stroke with digital motor - USED


WD-12704 Digital motor for 2460/2470 III , IV, & V's - USED/TESTED


720H078 Limit switch only (same as table switches on all 60's and 70's) - NEW


999H310 Screw (capillary) Cal Asia transducer for all 2460 side mount - NEW

WD-13278 Ultrasonic Transducer 2460-II - V (side clamp screw) Cal Asia - NEW

WD-12328-001 Ultrasonic Transducer 2470 (radial relief) Cal Asia - NEW

WD-14418 Ultrasonic Transducer 1 inch stroke with block, Cal Asia - NEW


WD-12285 Cal Asia Generator 2460 models only - USED/TESTED


WD-15023 Negative EFO controller 2460-IV - V - USED/TESTED

WD-8732D1 Positive EFO controller 2460-II - V - USED/TESTED


185H006 Cohu camera 2460-V - USED/TESTED


9" B/W fits all 2460 and 2470 machines Ė NEW


WD-8728D1 Air panel for adjusting wire tension 2460-I - V - USED/TESTED


WD-8862C23-1 Dust cover over wire spool, all 2460 & 2470-I through -V - NEW & USED

WD-8713A41 Small glass wire feed tube on -I through -V 2460s - NEW

WD-8709A29 Black air jet - USED

WD-15358-501 Wire Despooler - USED

5 BY 12 INCH AERO TABLE (2460-IV & 2460-V):

WD-11626 X/Y Table with motors - USED

WD-11189-501 X/Y Table without motors - USED


WD-12704 Digital table motor -III's and newer - USED/TESTED

720H078 Limit switch only (same as Z axis) all bonders - NEW

250H007 Bellows coupling (X, Y) axis


WD-16303 Temperature control assembly (pyrometer) for all 2460's and 2470's - USED


WD-15642 Keyboard assembly complete for 2460-V (no display) white only (CE) - USED


WD-12810-T MPU board for 2460-IV, V & 2470-III through V without EPROMs - NEW & USED/TESTED

WD-12960-T Page Memory board for 2460-IV through V & 2470-IV through V -USED

WD-8604D1 I/O board for 2460-II through 2460-V without programmable lighting - NEW & USED/TESTED


7200002 Jog encoder - USED -NEW

WD-8703B24 Jog know (grey) - USED

720H259 Start/stop switch only (fits all models) - NEW & USED/TESTED


WD-12534-001 2460 S2C servo control board X,Y & Z - NEW & USED/TESTED

WD-12534-002 2470 S2C servo control board X, Y, Z & T - NEW & USED/TESTED

WD-12870-001 2460 TCB with mezzanine board - NEW & USED/TESTED

WD-12870-002 2470 TCB with mezzanine board - NEW & USED/TESTED


WD-11652 Servo amplifier X, Y, Z & T axes, all 60's & 70's - NEW & USED/TESTED


WD-9553-507 Power '1' supply assembly complete for 2460-IV, -V & 70-III through -V - USED


WD-13996-501 Sys I/O 3000 LED Light - NEW

WD-14359-R PWA 3000 Computer Interface - NEW

WD-16957-001 Servo Amplifier GA375-2VM Y axis - NEW

WD-16956 Servo Amplifier GA375-4VM X axis - NEW



All items are shipped FOB Monument, Colorado. Not responsible for typographical errors.

Quantities are extremely limited and subject to prior sale. Customer pays all shipping expenses.

Have a Hughes/Palomar bonder you would like to sell? Contact Mike Christopher at (719) 481-9542.


Offering training, machine repair and applications assistance on Hughes & Palomar wire and die bonders.

Providing high quality refurbished gold ball, wedge and die bonders and tested replacement parts.

Questions? Contact Mike Christopher: (719) 481-9542, Fax: (719) 481-0193, e-mail: